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مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : History of Qatar


انت عمرى
06-27-2014, 10:44 PM
History of Qatar

Etymology

The name may derive from "Qatara", believed to sit down with the Qatari town of Zubara, an important commercialism port and city within the region in past.
In standard Arabic the name is pronounced [ˈqɑtˤɑr], while within the native dialect it is [ɡitˤar].[6] In English-language broadcast media within Qatar—for example, television commercials for Qatar Airways and advertisements regarding economic development in Qatar—the name is pronounced "KA-tar" (not "KAT-ar").






History

Recent discoveries on the edge of associate island in western Qatar indicate early human presence in pre-historic Qatar. Discovery of a sixth millennium before Christ site at Shagra, in southeastern Qatar revealed the key role the ocean (Persian Gulf) played within the lives of Shagra’s inhabitants. Excavations at Al-Khore in northeastern Qatar, Bir Zekrit and Ras Abaruk, and the discovery there of pottery, flint, flint-scraper tools, and painted ceramic vessels there indicates Qatar’s connection with the Al-Ubaid civilization which flourished within the land between the Tigris and the river which is gift Iraq during the period of 5th –4th millennium before Christ. There had conjointly been a barter-based commercialism system between the settlements at Qatar and the Ubaid Mesopotamia, within which the exchanged commodities were mainly pottery and dried fish.[10]
Islam conquered the whole Arabian region within the 7th century during a string of widespread conflicts resulting in the Islamization of the native Arabian pagans. With the spread of Islam in Qatar, the prophet Muhammad sent his first military envoy, Al Ala Al-Hadrami, to Al-Mundhir Ibn Sawa Al-Tamimi, the ruler of Bahrain, which extended from the coast of Kuwait to the south of Qatar, as well as Al-Hasa and Bahrain Islands, within the year 628, tantalizing him to accept Islam as he had invited different kingdoms and empires of his time like Byzantium and Persia. Mundhir, responding to Muhammad, announced his acceptance of Islam, and every one the inhabitants of Qatar became Muslim, heralding the beginning of the islamic era in Qatar.
In medieval times, Qatar was additional typically than not independent and a participant within the nice Persian Gulf–Indian Ocean commerce. several races and ideas were introduced into the land from the sailors of Sindh, geographical region, South and geographical area, in addition as the East Indies. Today, the traces of these early interactions with the oceanic world of the ocean survive within the small minorities of races, peoples, languages and religions, like the presence of Africans and Shihus.
Although the ground land mass that creates up Qatar has sustained humans for thousands of years, for the bulk of its history, the arid climate fostered only short-run settlements by peregrine tribes. Until 1913, it absolutely was a locality of the Turkish Empire.
The British ab initio wanted out Qatar and the persian gulf as associate negotiator van***e purpose on the way to their colonial interests in India; though, the invention of oil and different hydrocarbons within the early twentieth century would re-invigorate their interest. during the 19th century, the time of Britain’s formative ventures into the region, the Al Khalifa kinship group reigned over the northern Qatari land from the near island of Bahrain to the west.
Although Qatar had the position of a dependency, rancour festered against the Bahraini Al Khalifas on the jap seaside of the Qatari land. In 1867, the Al Khalifas launched a self-made effort to squash the Qatari rebels, causation a huge armed service force to Al Wakrah. However, the Bahraini aggression was in violation of the 1820 Anglo-Bahraini accord. The diplomatic response of nation to the present violation set into motion the political forces that will turn out within the beginning of the state of Qatar on december 18, 1878 (for this reason, the date of december 18 is widely known every year as the National Day of Qatar). additionally to censuring Bahrain for its breach of agreement, nation district (per colonel Lewis Pelly) asked to barter with a representative from Qatar.
The request carried with it a understood recognition of Qatar’s standing as distinct from Bahrain. The Qataris chose as their negotiant the revered enterpriser and long-time resident of Bida, Muhammed bin Thani. The Al Thanis had taken relatively little half in persian gulf politics, however the diplomatic foray ensured their participation within the movement towards independence and their political system as the future ruling family, a folk that continues to the present day. The results of the negotiations left Qatar with a new-found sense of political selfhood, though it didn't gain official standing as a British district until 1916.






20th and twenty first centuries



The reach of nation Empire diminished after the Second warfare, particularly following Indian independence in 1947. Pressure for a British withdrawal from the Arab emirates within the persian gulf enlarged during the 1950s, and the British welcome Kuwait’s declaration of independence in 1961. when kingdom formally announced in 1968 that it might disengage politically (though not economically) from the persian gulf in three years’ time, Qatar joined Bahrain and seven different Trucial States during a federation. Regional disputes, however, quickly compelled Qatar to resign and declare independence from the coalition that will evolve into the seven-emirate United Arab Emirates. On Sept three, 1971, Qatar became associate independent sovereign state.
In 1991, Qatar played a significant role within the persian gulf War, significantly during the Battle of Khafji {in which|during which|within which} Qatari tanks rolled through the streets of the town providing hearth support for Arabian home reserve units which were fighting against units of the Iraqi Army. Qatar conjointly allowed Coalition troops from canada to use the country as associate airbase to launch aircraft on CAP duty.
Since 1995[update], amir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani has dominated Qatar, seizing control of the country from his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani while the latter vacationed in Switzerland. under amir Hamad, Qatar has full-fledged a notable quantity of sociopolitical easement, as well as the endorsement of women's right to vote or right to vote, drafting a replacement constitution, and the launch of Al Jazeera, a number one English and Arabic news source which operates a website and television system news channel.
The International money states that Qatar has the highest GDP per capita within the world, followed by European nation. the planet Factbook ranks Qatar at second, following European nation.
Qatar served as the headquarters and one in all the most launching sites of the United States invasion of Iraq[11] in 2003.
In March 2005, a suicide bombing killed a British teacher at the Bida Players Theatre, shocking for a rustic that had not antecedently full-fledged acts of act of terrorism. The bombing was applied by Omar Ahmed Abdullah Ali, associate Egyptian residing in Qatar, United Nations agency had suspected ties to Base within the Arabian Peninsula.[12][13]

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06-28-2014, 04:23 AM
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