: Abdullah of Saudi Arabia


06-25-2014, 01:53 PM
Abdullah of Saudi Arabia

King of Saudi Arabia|Asian country|Asian nation}
Reign august 1, 2005 present
Bayaa August a pair of, 2005
Predecessor Fahd ibn Abdel Aziz al-Saud
5th Commander of the Saudi territorial reserve
In office Jan twenty six, 1963 November sixteen, 2010
Predecessor Saad bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud
Successor Mutaib bin Abdullah
Full name
King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Bin Abdulrahman Bin male monarch Bin Turki Bin Abdullah Bin Muhammad Bin Saud
House House of Saud
Father Abdulaziz
Mother Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim[1]
Born august 1, 1924 (1924-08-01) (age 86)
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Religion Sunni Islam

King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, guardian of the two Holy Mosques, (Arabic: )(born 1924) is the current King of Asian nation. He succeeded to the throne upon the death of his blood brother, King Fahd, on august 1, 2005. Before as crown prince, he governed Asian nation as regent from 1996 to 2005. he is one among the world's wealthiest men. He was Commander of saudi arabian territorial reserve from 1962 to November 2010.
Contents



Second Deputy Prime Minister

King Khalid appointed Abdullah as Second Deputy Prime Minister. In succession terms, he was therefore notionally crown prince in waiting. The appointment of Abdullah as second deputy prime minister became progressively contentious at intervals the royalty.[2]

Some princes were same to like Fahd's brother swayer, WHO had served as minister of defense and aviation since 1962, as next in line instead of Abdullah. Fahd ibn Abdel Aziz al-Saud himself was believed to like swayer moreover and swayer was backed by his alternative full brothers, referred to as Sudairi Seven once the tribe of their mother. along they were the most important single group of full brothers among the sons of Ibn Saud and sometimes appeared to act as a group; Ibn Sauds alternative wives had made solely 3, two, or a single son, as was the case with Abdullah.[2]

Whether Abdullah ought to be pressed to give up command of the herb as the worth for his appointment was the subject of family dialogue. Abdullah resisted this notion, not having a full brother to whom he might have passed the role. He additionally felt that if he himself lacked command of the herb forces, Sultan, as minister of defense, would be physically able to stop him from succeeding to the throne. [2]

The issue of Abdullah holding the command of the herb was reportedly debated in national capital by 250 princes in August 1977. At the meeting, or around this point, Fahd ibn Abdel Aziz al-Saud is claimed to have offered to appoint Abdullah as his crown prince, once Khalids eventual death, however as long as Abdullah agreed to give up control of the territorial reserve. underneath the proposal, the herb would either stay as a separate force, however underneath the command of prince Salman (another of Fahds full brothers), or be integrated into the regular militia underneath swayer. Abdullah rejected the offer, however, and the line of succession remained unresolved.[2]


Crown prince.

In may 1982, once Khalid died, Fahd ibn Abdel Aziz al-Saud was declared king by senior princes crystal rectifier by prince Muhammad, and the new king appointed Abdullah as crown prince a similar day.

As crown prince, he had acted as de facto regent ruler of Asian nation since Jan one, 1996, once King Fahd ibn Abdel Aziz al-Saud was incapacitated by a significant stroke.[3]

In August 2001, he ordered Ambassador Bandar bin swayer to come to Washington. The crown prince had reportedly seen on television Associate in Nursing Israeli soldier pushing Associate in Nursing old Palestinian lady. once she fell, she grabbed the soldier's leg and he stepped on her. The crown prince, reportedly in a rage, known as Bandar. "This is it. Those bastards!" he shouted, in keeping with Associate in Nursing account that Bandar has given associates. "Even women-they're stepping everywhere them." He reportedly ordered Bandar to deliver a message: starting these days, you go your means and we can go our means. From then on, the Saudis would look out for their own national interests.[4] The crown prince later explicit he was deeply disturbed by the "continued Israeli actions, horrifying actions, as if person blood is not capable Palestinian"-in particular, the practice of backbreaking the families of people suspected of committing terrorist acts. "We surprise however the american individuals would have accepted the President of the u. s. ordering all the McVeigh family houses to be destroyed or burning their farms," he said, bearing on the state capital bomber Timothy McVeigh.[4]

On the second anniversary of the 9/11 attacks on the u. s., the then-prince wrote a letter to then U.S. President george W. Bush, that finished with:

"God Almighty, in His wisdom, tests the devoted by permitting such calamities to happen. But He, in His mercy, additionally provides US with the will and determination, generated by religion, to alter US to transform such tragedies into great achievements, and crises that appear enfeebling are transformed into opportunities for the advancement of humanity. I solely hope that, along with your cooperation and leadership, a brand new world can emerge out of the detritus of the world Trade Center: a world that's blessed by the virtues of freedom, peace, prosperity and harmony." [5]



King of Asian nation

He was formally enthroned on August 3, 2005. At age 86, he is one among the world's oldest ruling monarchs. He has flat-topped the 500 Most potent Muslims list for 2 consecutive years in 2009 and 2010. [6][7]


Domestic Affairs

King Abdullah has recently implemented several reform measures. He has re-shuffled the Ministry of Education's leadership in Gregorian calendar month 2009 by transfer in the King's pro-reform son-in-law as the new minister. He has done a top-to-bottom restructuring of the country's courts to introduce, among alternative things, review of judicial choices and additional professional training for Shari'a judges. He has been chargeable for the creation of a brand new investment promotion agency to overhaul the once-convoluted process of starting a business in Asian nation. He has created a regulatory body for capital markets. He has promoted the construction of the King Abdullah University for Science and Technology (the country's new flagship and controversially-coed establishment for advanced scientific research). He has done a substantial budgetary investment in educating the personnel for future jobs. The Saudi government is also encouraging the development of non-hydrocarbon sectors in which the dominion features a comparative advan***e, together with mining, alternative energy, and religious commercial enterprise. The Kingdom's 2010 budget reflects these prioritiesabout twenty five % is devoted to education aloneand amounts to a significant economic stimulus package.[8] [9]

There are currently over 22,000 Saudi students finding out in the US, olympian pre-9/11 levels. Public health engagement has included carcinoma awareness and Center for Disease Control and Prevention cooperation to line up an advanced epidemic screening network that protected this year,s 3 million hadj pilgrims.[8] [10]
King Abdullah with Russian President Vladimir Putin on Gregorian calendar month eleven, 2007.

The response of King Abdullah's administration to native coercion has been a series of crackdowns together with raids by security forces, arrests, torture[11] and public beheadings. King Abdullah has vowed to fight terrorist ideologies at intervals the country. He has created the protection of Saudi Arabia's important infrastructure a high security priority.[12]

King Abdullah's strategy against coercion has been two-pronged: he has attacked the roots of the extremism that fed terrorist group through education and judicial reforms to weaken the influence of the most reactionary elements of Saudi Arabia's non secular institution. he is additionally promoting economic diversification. The King is keenly attentive to the urgent ought to create Saudi education additional relevant to today's geographical point and increase the role of girls in the economy.[8]


Interfaith Dialogue

In November 2007, King Abdullah visited Pope Benedict XVI in the Apostolic Palace. he is the primary Saudi monarch to go to the Pope.[13]

In March 2008, King Abdullah involved a brotherly and sincere dialogue between believers from all religions.[14]

In june 2008, King Abdullah control a conference at Mecca to urge Muslim leaders to speak with one voice with person and Christian leaders.[15] He discussed and took approval of the Saudi monotheism scholars and the world's illustrious monotheism scholars to hold the interfaith dialogue. in the same month, Asian nation and spain|Espana|European country|European nation} agreed to hold the interfaith dialogue in Spain.[16] The historic conference finally materialized in Madrid in july 2008 wherever non secular leaders of different faiths participated.[17]

King Abdullah had ne'er earlier created any overtures for dialogue with jap non secular leaders such as Hindus and Buddhists. The Mecca conference discussed a crucial paper on the dialogue with the followers of monotheistic religions highlight the monotheistic religions of Southeast Asia together with faith in the third axis of the fourth meeting titled "With Whom we have a tendency to Talk" given by Arab chief Badrul Hasan Al Qasimi. The session was chaired by Dr. Ezz Eddin ibrahim, adviser to the President of the United Arab Emirates for Culture. The session additionally discussed a paper given on coordination among monotheism establishments on Dialogue by Dr. Abdullah bin Omar Nassif, Secretary General of the world monotheism Council for Preaching and Relief and a paper on dialogue with divine messages, given by prof Mahomet Sammak - Secretary General of the monotheism religious Summit in Asian nation. The session finished by Arab chief Al Fadel Alzafzaaf, underneath Secretary-Azhar and Chairman of the Committee for dialogue among religions erstwhile, Cairo discussing the long run of dialogue in the light-weight of perennial abuse to Islam.

On November 2008, King Abdullah and his government were chargeable for the 'Peace of Culture' that materialized at the united nations General Assembly. It brought along Muslim and non-Muslim nations to eradicate the preconception of Islam and coercion. It brought along leaders together with former Prime Minister of the united kingdom statesman, Israeli President Shimon Peres, former U.S. President george W. Bush and King Abdullah II of Jordan.


United States
Abdullah with george W. Bush

In october 1976, as prince Abdullah was being trained for greater responsibility in national capital, he was sent to the u. s. to satisfy with President President. He once more traveled to the u. s. as crown prince in october 1987, meeting vice chairman george H. W. Bush. In september 1998, crown prince Abdullah created a state visit to the u. s. to satisfy in Washington, D.C. with President William Jefferson Clinton. In september 2000, he attended millennium celebrations at the united nations in new york city. In april 2002, crown prince Abdullah created a state visit to the u. s. with President george W. Bush and he returned once more in april 2005 with Bush. In april 2009, at a summit for world leaders U.S. President Barack Obama met him. In june 2009, Abdullah hosted President Obama in Asian nation. In turn, Obama hosted Abdullah at the White House in the same month.

He likes President Obama lots. "Thank God for transfer Obama to the presidency," he said, adding that Obama's election created "great hope" in the Muslim world.[18] He explicit , "We (the U.S. and saudi arabia|Kingdom of Saudi Arabia|Asian country|Asian nation}) spilled blood together" in Kuwait and Iraq and Saudi Arabia valued this staggeringly and relationship may be a troublesome issue that needs work however the U.S. and Asian nation have done it for seventy years over 3 generations. "Our disagreements do not cut to the bone," he explicit .[19]

Abdullah same that "it was a mistake" to limit access of Saudi voters to the U.S.


Iraq

The bush administration neglected advice from the King and government minister against invasive Iraq.[12] however, alternative sources say that a lot of Arab governments were solely nominally hostile the Iraq invasion because of in style hostility. [20] Before turning into king, Abdullah was thought to be utterly against the U.S. invasion of Iraq; this, however, was not the case. national capital provided essential support to the u. s. throughout the war and proved that "necessity does result in some accommodations from time to time." [21] The King expressed a whole lack of trust in Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and control out little hope for improved Saudi-Iraqi relations as long as al-Maliki remains in office.[19] King Abdullah told Associate in Nursing Iraqi official regarding Nouri al-Maliki, You and Iraq are in my heart, however that man is not. [22]


Iran

In april 2008, King Abdullah told US ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker and US General David Petraeus to "cut off the head of the snake". Saudi Arabia's ambassador to Washington, Adel al-Jubeir recalled the King's frequent exhortations to the US to attack iran Associate in Nursingd to put an finish to its nuclear weapons program." [23] Abdullah asserted that iran is attempting to line up Hezbollah-like organizations in African countries, perceptive that the Iranians do not think they are doing anything wrong and don't acknowledge their mistakes. He same the Iranians "launch missiles with the hope of golf stroke concern in individuals and the world." The King delineate his speech with Iranian government minister Mottaki as "a heated exchange, honestly discussing Iran's interference in Arab affairs." once challenged by the King on Iranian meddling in hamas affairs, Mottaki apparently protested that "these are Muslims." "No, Arabs" countered the King, "You as Persians haven't any business meddling in Arab matters." Abdullah same he would favor Rafsanjani in Associate in Nursing Iranian election.[24] [18]

The King told General Jones that Iranian internal turmoil given an opportunity to weaken the regimewhich he encouragedbut he additionally urged that this be done covertly and stressed that public statements in support of the reformers were harmful. The King assessed that sanctions might facilitate weaken the govt., however as long as they are robust and sustained.[8]

In 2006, Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei had sent his adviser Ali Akbar Velayati with a letter posing for Abdullah's agreement to establish a proper line for communication between the two leaders. Abdullah same he had agreed, and the channel was established with Velayati and Saud al-Faisal as the points of contact. in the years since, the King noted, the channel had ne'er been used.[24]
[edit] urban center Bay

In March 2009, King Abdullah planned implanting urban center detainees with a chip that contained their personal information before authorities tracked their movements victimization Bluetooth technology. he explicit that "keeping track of detainees was an especially necessary issue" and secure to review such a suggestion with "appropriate officials" once he returned to the u. s..[19]

In December 2010 it had been relased that Abdullah wanted all detainees released from the Guantánamo Bay prison to be tracked through Associate in Nursing constituted silicon chip, in keeping with the leaked diplomatic cables printed by Wikileaks. The King created the personal suggestion throughout a gathering in March last year in national capital with John Brennan, the White House counter-terrorism adviser. adult male Brennan replied that "horses do not have sensible lawyers" and that such a proposal would "face legal hurdles" in the u. s.. in the same cables it had been discovered that he additionally in camera urged the u. s. to attack iran to destroy its nuclear weapons programme.[25]


China

Since King Abdullah's visit to Peking in Jan 2006, the Saudi-Chinese relationship has focused preponderantly on energy and trade.[26] Bilateral trade with China has over tripled, and China can shortly be Saudi Arabia's largest importer. Asian nation has additionally committed important investments in China, together with the $8 billion Fujian refinery. The King has told the Chinese that it's willing to effectively trade a secured oil offer in return for Chinese pressure on iran to not develop nuclear weapons.[8]
[edit] Foreign Relations With alternative Nations

In Gregorian calendar month 2010, The king known as President Asif Zardari of West Pakistan the best "obstacle" to that countrys progress "rotten head" that affects the whole body. He asserted that that the Pakistani Army was staying out of Pakistani politics in deference to U.S. wishes, instead of doing what it "should." The Saudi delegation went on to say Nawaz Sharif will play a "great role" in operating with social group chiefs and that "money is better than bullets" in the fight against the Taliban. [27]

The King explicit that having African country next door to Asian nation solely adds to the danger of coercion. He has expressed support of Yemen's unity.[8] The King has been delineate as a firm supporter of Presiden Saleh in contrast to crown prince swayer. However, it has additionally been noted that the King doesn't have a lot of regard for Saleh. [28]

In a November 2009, the King was received by Nicolas Sarkozy WHO committed varied diplomatic flub. The diplomatic relationship Jacques Chirac had with Asian nation was not evident with Sarzoky. [29] [30]


Criticism

On Gregorian calendar month sixteen, 2003, Parade Magazine's David Wallechinsky rated King Fahd ibn Abdel Aziz al-Saud and crown prince Abdullah as the second worst dictator in the world.[31]

On Jan twenty four, 2007, Human Rights Watch sent Associate in Nursing missive to King Abdullah asking him to cease non secular maltreatment of the Ahmadi religion in Asian nation. 2 letters were sent in November 2006 and Gregorian calendar month 2007 asking him to get rid of the travel ban on critics of the Saudi government.[32] Human Rights Watch has not however indicated whether they have received any response to those letters.

On october 30, 2007, throughout a state visit to the united kingdom, Abdullah was greeted by protesters inculpative him of being a "murderer" and a "torturer". considerations were raised in the UK regarding the treatment of girls and homosexuals by the Saudi kingdom. considerations were additionally raised over alleged bribes involving arms deals between Asian nation and the UK.[33]


Future successors to the Royal Throne
Further information: Line of succession to the saudi arabian throne

King Abdullah is eighty six this year, however his 0.5 brother and designated successor, crown prince swayer, is 82. The apparent next in line is Sultan's full brother, prince Nayef[34]

In 2006, Abdullah created the Allegiance Council, a body that's composed of the sons and grandsons of Saudi Arabia's founder, King Abdulaziz, to vote by a secret ballot to decide on future kings and crown princes. The council's mandate will not start till once the reigns of Abdullah and swayer are over. it's not clear, however, what would happen if swayer were to die before the tip of Abdullah's reign, exploit a question as to whether or not the council would vote for a brand new crown prince or whether or not Nayef would mechanically fill that position.[35]

On November 2010, prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz chaired a cupboard meeting because of the deterioration of the King's health [36] throughout a similar month, King Abdullah transferred his duties as Commander of the Saudi territorial reserve to his son prince Mutaib. Abdullah is attributable with building up the once mostly ceremonial unit into a contemporary 260,000-strong force that's a counterweight to the military. The Guard, that was Abdullah's original power base, protects the royalty. This was steered as an obvious sign that the old monarch is commencing to reduce a number of his duties.[37]

Various Positions

King Abdullah was Commander of the Saudi territorial reserve from 1963 to 2010. he is Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council, President of the High Council for rock oil and Minerals, President of the King Abdulaziz Centre for National Dialogue, Chairman of the Council of officialdom, and head of the Military Service Council.


Personal life

Abdullah is the fifth son (out of 37 sons) of King Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman Al Saud, the founding father of trendy Asian nation, to ascend to the throne.[38] He is, once his half-brothers Bandar and Musa'id, the third eldest of the living sons of Abdul Aziz ibn Saud. Abdullah's mother is from the Rashid tribe, longtime rivals of the Saud.[39] He has 6 sons and 15 daughters.[40][41] His youngest son is simply seven years recent.[42]

His female offspring Adila is married to prince male monarch bin Abdullah bin Muhammad, the new Education Minister appointed in 2009. Adila is one among the few Saudi princesses with a semi-public role and a notable advocate of women's right to drive. [43]

Health

The king had curtailed his activities since june 2010 with no clear rationalization. Diplomats same there has been uncertainty regarding the extent of his health problems since Abdullah canceled a visit to France. in a television look in which he was seen to use a cane, King Abdullah same he was in physiological state however had something "bothering" him.

In November 2010, King Abdullah's back problems came to light-weight in the media. On November nineteen, the king underwent tests at King male monarch hospital in national capital once a brand new burst of pain. Official reports same he had Associate in Nursing "accumulation of blood" around the funiculus. Abdullah suffered from a herniated disc and was told to rest by doctors.On November 20, Associate in Nursing expectedbut ne'er formally announcedvisit by Egyptian President national leader became a phone call between the two leaders instead.[44] On November 22, King Abdullah was admitted to New York-Presbyterian Hospital once a blood complicated a ruptured intervertebral disc. On November twenty four, King Abdullah underwent successful back surgery. The surgeons probably removed the herniated disk and performed a lumbar fusion.[45][46] A high Saudi official says the kingdom's ruler is walking once more following a successful back operation.[47] [48] He can have another surgery in which surgeons can "stabilize a number of vertebras" on December 3. [49]

Saudi authorities have been remarkably open in going public with the king's condition, apparently in an endeavor to forestall any speculation and reassure allies of the key Near East nation and oil power. Personal issues at intervals the royalty are typically unbroken underneath strict wraps.[50] to keep up the Kingdom's stability crown prince swayer returned from Morocco in the meanwhile.[51]

Philanthropy

* King Abdullah procured the separation surgery of a combine of Polish conjoint twins, that materialized at the King Abd al-Aziz Medical city in national capital on Jan 3, 2005. He was given "honorary citizenship" by the Polish town of Janikowo, wherever the twins were born. March 18, 2005 was awarded Order of the Smile (which he attained throughout his visit in Poland in 2007).

* He has established 2 libraries, the King Abdulaziz Library in national capital and another in port, Morocco.

* He donated over $300,000 to furnish a brand new Orleans high school rebuilding once cyclone Katrina.

* He has donated $50 million in money and $10 million price of relief materials for the 2008 Szechwan earthquake in China.[52]

* He donated $10 billion to the endowment fund of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in may 2008.[53]

* He established the King Abdullah University (Rawalakot) in Pakistan's Azad Jammu & geographic region|geographical area|geographic area|geographical region|geographic region} once the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

06-28-2014, 06:47 PM
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